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pet health

  • Chondroitin sulfate is the major glycosaminoglycan found in cartilage; it also helps inhibit enzymes that are destructive to the joints. Chondroitin sulfate is a naturally occurring substance in the body.

    Therapeutic Uses
    A study in the 1998 journal, Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, reported that chondroitin sulfate is an effective treatment for osteoarthritis. Because chondroitin production by the body decreases with aging, supplementation with this compound may be especially helpful for older pets with arthritis.

    Animal cartilage is the only dietary source of chondroitin.

    Scientific Evidence
    For years, experts stated that oral chondroitin couldn’t work because its molecules are so big that it seemed doubtful they could be absorbed through the digestive tract. However, in 1995, researchers laid this objection to rest when they found evidence that up to 15 percent of chondroitin is absorbed intact. Anther study found that up to 70 percent of radio-labeled chondroitin sulfate was well absorbed and showed affinity for articular (joint) cartilage. This evidence for chondroitin absorption holds true for pets as well as people.

    The effect of both oral and injected chondroitin was assessed in rabbits with damaged cartilage in the knee. After 84 days of treatment, the rabbits that were given chondroitin had significantly more healthy cartilage remaining in the damaged knee than the untreated animals. Receiving chondroitin by mouth was as effective as taking it through an injection. It appears quite likely that chondroitin can slow the progression of osteoarthritis. However, more studies are needed to confirm this very exciting possibility. It would also be wonderful if chondroitin could repair damaged cartilage and thus reverse arthritis, but none of the research so far shows such an effect. Chondroitin may simply stop further destruction from occurring.

    How does chondroitin work for osteoarthritis? Scientists are unsure how chondroitin sulfate works, but one of several theories might explain its mode of action. At its most basic level, chondroitin may help cartilage by providing it with the building blocks it needs to repair itself. It is also believed to block enzymes that break down cartilage in the joints. Another theory holds that chondroitin increases the amount of hyaluronic acid in the joints. Hyaluronic acid is a protective fluid that keeps the joints lubricated. Finally, chondroitin may have a mild anti-inflammatory effect.

    Chondroitin is often added to supplements containing glucosamine. While significant studies are lacking, some doctors (but not all) feel adding chondroitin to glucosamine enhances the ability of both substances to repair cartilage due to a synergistic effect.

    Safety Issues
    Chondroitin sulfate, like glucosamine, has not been associated with any serious side effects. Mild digestive distress appears to be the only real concern in people and possibly pets.

  • Colostrum is the antibody-rich fluid produced from the mother during the first day or two after birth. However, most commercial colostrum preparations come from cows. Whether cow antibodies are good for humans or pets is unclear, although many holistic veterinarians report positive results with both colostrum and the more concentrated form called lactoferrin. Lactoferrin is a component of colostrum. By concentrating the intended nutrient (lactoferrin), instead of having a tiny amount of it as found in colostrum, the effect may be maximized in the body. Ideally, colostrum should come from a dairy that does not use hormones, pesticides, or medications in the cows, which could concentrate in the colostrum.

    Purine and pyrimidine complexes are the active fractions found in colostrum, the first milk produced by mammals. Purine nucleotides are involved in virtually all cellular processes and play a major role in structural, metabolic, energetic and regulatory functions. Like arabinogalactans, they have been shown to stimulate the activity of natural killer white blood cells. Colostrum contains cytokines and other protein compounds that can act as biological response modifiers.

    Therapeutic Uses
    In pets, colostrum has been recommended and anecdotally found useful for the treatment of wounds (promotes healing of insect bites, abscesses, ruptured cysts, warts, and surgical incisions when applied topically to the wound). Colostrum is also used for gingivitis, as an aid to proper functioning and motility of the intestinal tract, diarrhea, colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, constipation, food allergies, and arthritis. Very often colostrum is used with other treatments; these other treatments might be reduced or eliminated after the pet has been taking colostrum.

    Research supports its use in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis as well as other autoimmune conditions. Nucleotides also may play an important role in essential fatty acid metabolism, and may have a positive effect on the functions of the gastrointestinal tract and the liver. Colostrum is often sold as an "immune stimulant."

    However, if it works, it would most likely function by directly fighting parasites, bacteria, and viruses. There is no particular reason to believe it does strengthen the immune system, although it has been purported to establish homeostasis in the thymus gland, which functions in regulating the immune system. More research is needed to determine whether colostrum works in this manner.

    The usual recommended dosage of colostrum is 10 g daily in people; in pets, the recommendations is to feed it free-choice in powder form at least 30 minutes or longer before feeding, usually once daily in the morning. The recommended dosage for cats with gingivitis is 40 mg/kg applied topically to the gums.

    Scientific Evidence
    There is some evidence that colostrum can help prevent certain infectious diseases, but other studies have found it ineffective.

    A specialized form of colostrum was tested for its ability to prevent infection in people with the common parasite cryptosporidium. One group of healthy volunteers was given colostrum before receiving an infectious dose of cryptocebo. Those who took colostrum experienced less diarrhea and appeared to experience a lower-grade infection.

    Several other studies indicate that colostrum may relieve diarrhea and other symptoms associated with cryptosporidium in people with AIDS. Another study suggests colostrum might prevent mild infections with the Shigella parasite from becoming severe. However, a different study looking at Bangladeshi children infected with Helicobacter pylori (the organism that causes digestive ulcers) found no benefits. Also, no benefit was seen in a study on rotavirus (another parasite that causes diarrhea in children).

    There is evidence that lactoferrin works in cats with stomatitis secondary to FIV (feline immunodeficiency virus) infection (the study showed no evidence for colostrum). It is theorized that lactoferrin may have two functions. Lactoferrin may bind iron that is essential for bacterial growth, and it may stimulate local (IgA) immunity at the level of the palatine tonsils.

    Safety Issues
    Colostrum and lactoferrin do not seem to cause any significant side effects. However, comprehensive safety studies are being performed. Safety in young children or women who are pregnant or nursing has not been established. These guidelines should probably also be followed for pets.

  • Dear Readers,

    Welcome to the December 2019 issue of TotalHealth Magazine

    Victoria Al Rabi, MD, contributes the article, PYLO-X: An Innovative And Unique Solution For Helicobacter Pylori. H. pylori in the stomach is one of the many antibiotic-resistant infections the world is now dealing with. It is also a difficult infection to eliminate even using multiple antibiotics. Therefore, interest in more natural ways to treat it are being researched. One product has proven to be highly effective. According to Rabi, “Pylo-x is a biotechnology innovative solution based on its unique ingredients and has no side effects.”

    Charles K. Bens, PhD, presents, How To Protect Your Brain From Alzheimer’s. He discusses the panel of tests that are now available to assess your risk of Alzheimer’s. Even if you aren’t able to take all these assessments, you can benefit from using the guidelines he provides to slow or delay symptoms. If you are at high-risk for Alzheimer’s, he recommends you read, The End of Alzheimer’s, by Dr. Dale Bredesen. Using Dr. Bredesen’s protocol may help you avoid Alzheimer’s for life.

    Professor Gene Bruno, MS, MHS, Rh(Ahg), discusses, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder this month. Best known as a disorder effecting our military members; PTSD can disrupt the lives of anyone who has suffered a traumatic event. Besides conventional treatments, Professor Bruno talks about key nutraceuticals that have proven to be helpful.

    Our natural vet, Shawn Messonnier’s, article is, Herbs For Urinary Disorders in Pets. Not only are Uva Ursi, Plantain, and Goldenrod helpful urinary antiseptics for pets, but they also work well for humans. Checkout this month’s article as it may save, both you and your pet, from the need for a prescription drug.

    Ann Louise Gittleman, PhD, CNS, continues her series on smart fats with tips for, Smart Sips, Seasonings and Sweeteners. As many prepare to bake pies, cookies, and candy, she offers us several sweeteners that can be used in place of refined sugar that offer the sweet taste but little to no calories. This is timely help for seasonal weight loss, as well as, yearround healthy eating.

    Gloria Gilbere, CDP, DAHom, PhD, completes her three-part series on, The Health Benefits of Coconut Flour, discussing its effect on blood sugar. Many of us have been schooled that multi-grain bread is a go-to healthy choice; however, it rates high on the glycemic index. For those with high blood sugar the use of coconut flour provides five times more fiber, which slows the absorption of sugar, and is much lower on the glycemic index. Checkout the coconut flour comparison chart to see how it stacks up against the better-known flours.

    Live Longer, Live Better, With EDTA and Glutathione, by, TotalHealth editors, informs us about heavy metal toxicity. First used in the 1940’s, chelation therapy was the treatment of choice for lead poisoning. Forward-thinking doctors suggested it might work for plaque in the arteries; but main stream physician’s chose to promote the invasive coronary bypass surgery approach. Read on to learn how removing heavy metals through chelation can treat or prevent numerous diseases, before the use of major surgery.

    Thank you to our authors, readers, and advertisers. You make TotalHealth Magazine online possible.

    Best in health,

    TWIP—The Wellness Imperative People

    Click here to read the full December 2019 issue.

    Click here to read the full December 2019 issue.

  • DMG stands for dimethylglycine, also called vitamin B15. It is found in low levels in foods, including meats, seeds, and grains. Both the human and animal body makes DMG from choline and betaine. It is suggested that increased dietary intake of DMG is to provide carbon to cells. It is also a precursor of SAMe. DMG appears to enhance oxygen usage, prevent the accumulation of lactic acid, improve muscle metabolism, function as an anti-stress nutrient to improve the cardiovascular system, and reduce recovery time after vigorous physical activity.

    Therapeutic Uses of DMG
    It has been recommended for use in pets with a variety of conditions including osteoarthritis at a dose of 50 to 500 mg per day. Its mechanism in the treatment of osteoarthritis is via an anti-inflammatory effect. Many doctors prescribe it for horses, dogs, and cats to improve performance and enhance recovery from various health problems. DMG is considered an anti-stress nutrient.

    Holistic veterinarians have also recommended DMG as a supplement for pets with seizures and allergies. Research suggests that DMG may in fact be beneficial for these conditions, although the actual benefit for these conditions is unproven through controlled studies.

    Studies have shown DMG can improve the immune response by potentiating both cell-mediated and humoral (antibody) immunity. Some holistic doctors also recommend DMG for pets with immune disorders such as cancer, feline leukemia virus infection, feline immunodeficiency virus infection and diabetes (at a dosage of 0.5 to 1.0 mg per pound daily). DMG is included in formulas for pets with heart disease. It is proposed to work by improving oxygen uptake and utilization.

    DMG is also recommended as a natural therapy for pets with epilepsy at a dosage of 50 –500 mg per pet per day.

    Safety Issues
    DMG is extremely safe. The body converts it into its metabolites that are either used or excreted from the body.

  • Fleas are the most common external pest causing irritation and discomfort to dogs and cats. Flea infestations are not usually fatal; however, puppies, kittens, and debilitated pets can become quite ill and even die due to blood loss from heavy flea infestation (fleas suck blood from their hosts). Fleas most commonly cause irritation to infested pets. Dogs and cats with flea allergies can experience intense itching and secondary skin infections. Only one flea bite is necessary to cause severe signs in flea-allergic pets; in many flea-allergic pets, no fleas are ever found.

    Finally, fleas are also the intermediate host for the common dog and cat tapeworm. Finding tapeworms in the pet’s feces, or finding flea fecal material (“flea dirt,” small black flecks of blood located on the pet that turn red when mixed with water) is evidence of flea infestation even if no adult fleas are seen.

    Treating fleas either with natural or conventional therapies (or both) require treating the pet, indoor environment, and outdoor environment. Owners should keep in mind there are four stages of the flea life cycle: adult (the only stage that occurs on the pet and makes up five to ten percent of the entire flea population), egg, larvae, and cocoon. Since 90 to 95 percent of the flea population (the eggs, larvae, and cocoons) occurs in the environment (house and yard) rather than on the pet, flea-control programs must concentrate their efforts there, or the programs will fail.

    Other Natural Treatments for Fleas and Ticks

    While generally considered to be less toxic than even the newer, safer chemicals recommended for flea control, the main drawback to using natural treatments for flea control on the pet is the need for frequent application. Natural products are quite useful in the environment and usually do not require frequent applications.

    Treatments for flea control on the pet and in the environment include neem, citronella, diatomaceous earth, sodium polysorbate, and beneficial nematodes. Herbs to be given orally include garlic, burdock root, dandelion, and red clover. Herbs to be given topically include feverfew, pyrethrum, mullein, Canadian fleabane, and pennyroyal oil, which has potential toxicity.

    As with any condition, the most healthful natural diet will improve the pet’s overall health.

    Itching can be controlled with low doses or corticosteroids or natural therapies including Xiao Skin Allergy Relief (

    Conventional Therapy for Fleas and Ticks

    Conventional therapies involve the use of various chemicals such as carbamates, organophosphates, synthetic pyrethrins, and insect growth regulators such as methoprene, to kill fleas. There are no conventional treatments to eliminate the cocoon stage of the flea life cycle.

    The newer conventional therapies for flea (and tick) control appear to be safer and work better than products available years ago. Ideally, problems are best prevented rather than treated. Since the advent of products such as Program, Advantage, and Frontline, owners can now have year-round or seasonal prevention for their pets rather than wait until severe flea infestation occurs. Preventing problems allows owners to use fewer chemicals in their approach than waiting to treat problems that require more chemicals used for greater lengths of time.

    The newer chemicals work much better than past treatments of toxic dips, powders, sprays, and collars. By their modes of action and application, they are safer for pets, owners, and the environment. Still, these products are chemicals; when possible, more natural preventive measures are recommended. In addition, when possible, these (and other unnecessary) chemicals should be avoided in pets with chronic diseases, including allergies, cancer, epilepsy, feline leukemia virus infection, feline immunodeficiency infection, autoimmune diseases, and any other conditions where extraneous application or ingestion of chemicals is best avoided.

    Toxicity that occurs with conventional flea treatments mainly involves the central nervous system, usually by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase, the enzyme that degrades the major nerve transmitter acetylcholine. Using the products on an as-needed basis, following label directions, and working with your veterinarian to use the least toxic products (for example, a pyrethrin outdoor spray or methoprene indoors rather than an organophosphate) will allow most products to be used safely when indicated.

    Check out Dr. Shawn’s line of all natural pet products at

  • As dogs age, they eventually start to slow down and are happy sitting under the big oak tree watching life go by. All dogs will age, and they will all age at a different rate, depending on their size, breed, and how they are cared for throughout life. A dog that is in optimal health throughout her life will age more slowly than a dog plagued by chronic illnesses. If you have an elderly dog in poor health, it is not too late to bring her back to health. Many of the symptoms attributed to old age in dogs are merely a lack of good nutrition.

    As your dog’s activity level slows down, her metabolism will decrease and she will not burn as many calories, resulting in weight gain—one of the biggest problems among older dogs. As your dog ages and slows down, her whole body is aging and slowing down, and her digestive tract, heart, kidney, liver, and brain can’t work as efficiently as they used to. Some small adjustments to your dog’s diet and exercise program will give her a better chance for a healthy, pain-free old age.

    As your dog’s body ages and functions less efficiently, she will not be able to digest food as easily or absorb as many of the nutrients from her food. The lack of nutrients may cause an elderly dog to become lethargic, and can lead to many of the chronic illnesses that so many people, including veterinarians, shrug their shoulders over and attribute to old age. But aging is not an illness; it is a stage of life. To adjust for these changes, your dog needs highly digestible, low-calorie foods, and a multivitamin-mineral supplement that is easily absorbed. A powered multivitamin-mineral supplement will be more easily absorbed than a pill. If the multivitamin-mineral supplement is not specifically made for the older dog, give her one-third more than what is recommended for an adult dog.

    Use powered vitamin C, and once a year up the dose a little to bowel tolerance (gas or diarrhea means your dog is getting too much vitamin C), to see if your dog could use some additional vitamin C. Double the vitamin E to daily doses of: 200 IU for small dogs, 400 IU for medium dogs, and 800 IU for giant dogs.

    To compensate for the less efficient digestive tract, well-cooked carbohydrates will be easier for your dog to digest than meat, so cut back a little on her meat and add more carbohydrates. A heaping spoonful of plain yogurt with active cultures at each meal will also aid in digestion by keeping her intestines rich with much-needed bacteria. Digestive enzyme supplements are also available for dogs. Follow the directions on the label for appropriate dosages. Some elderly dogs lose their sense of thirst, so add extra water to her meals and when you cook the grains.

    To avoid weight gain, in addition to cutting back a little on her meat, buy the leaner cuts of meat and add more vegetables if she starts licking the bowl clean or seems to be hungrier than usual. If you are feeding her a commercial dog food, cut back on the food a little and add vegetables if she seems hungry. To avoid dental problems that can lead to eating problems, give your dog a marrow bone once or twice a week. They are much less expensive than having your dog’s teeth cleaned, and chewing a bone is much more fun for your dog than going to the dentist.

    Feeding all the rights foods is only half the key to keeping your dog healthy in her older years. Exercise will help keep the joints agile and the organs strong and functioning, maintain muscle strength, and prevent arthritis and weight gain. An exercise program for elderly dogs needs to be fun and of shorter duration. Rather than one long walk, take her for two walks a day. The expression “use it or lose it” goes for your dog too, and just as with people, dogs need some encouragement to exercise as they grow older.

    As your dog ages, you may also notice some behavioral changes, including aggression, barking, confusion, shyness, trouble sleeping, and the desire to be in the background observing rather than the center of attention.

    Older dogs who suddenly start snapping when bothered by other dogs or people, or who seek solitude, may be in pain. Growling is their only defense if, for example, they can’t run because of the pain of arthritis. If you observe your dog being uncharacteristically snappy or grouchy, make an appointment with your veterinarian for a thorough physical exam.

    Barking, confusion, and shyness are very often signs that some of your dog’s senses aren’t as sharp as they were. Your dog depends heavily on her smelling and hearing to identify people, places, and animals. If the hearing is impaired or there is an ear infection, familiar sounds may now be perceived as a new sound, which can cause barking and confusion. Dogs also use their sense of smell to identify animals, people, and their surroundings. If the sense of smell is diminished, your dog will have trouble identifying friend from foe, which can cause shyness, or aggression toward people, animals, or places she has known all her life.

    Starting at age seven for large and giant dogs, and age ten for small and medium dogs, I also recommend a visit to the veterinarian every six months rather than yearly.

  • Glutamine, or L-glutamine, is an amino acid derived from another amino acid, glutamic acid. It serves as a precursor to D-glucosamine, an amino sugar well-known for its ability to relieve pain and inflammation and regenerate connective tissue in people and pets with osteoarthritis. Severe stresses may result in a temporary glutamine deficiency.

    There is no daily requirement for glutamine as the body can make its own glutamine. High-protein foods such as meat, fish, beans, and dairy products are excellent sources of glutamine.

    Therapeutic Uses
    Glutamine plays a role in the health of the immune system, digestive tract, and muscle cells, as well as other bodily functions. It appears to serve as a fuel for the cells that line the intestines (it serves as a primary energy source for the mucosal cells that line the intestinal tract). Because stress on the intestinal cells (such as chronic inflammatory bowel disease) can increase the need for glutamine as the body replaces the cells lining the intestinal tract, glutamine is often recommended for pets with chronic bowel disorders including inflammatory bowel disease. Heavy exercise, infection, surgery, and trauma can deplete the body’s glutamine reserves, particularly in muscle cells.

    It has also been suggested as a treatment for food allergies, based on the "leaky gut syndrome." This theory holds that in some pets whole proteins leak through the wall of the digestive tract and enter the blood, causing allergic reactions. Preliminary evidence suggests glutamine supplements might reduce leakage through the intestinal wall. In people and pets, glutamine is also recommended to reduce the loss of muscle mass (as may occur during injury, stress, or high-endurance activities as might be encountered by dogs competing in field trials).

    Glutamine is also a precursor to the enzyme glutamine: fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase, which plays a role in the development of insulin resistance that may eventually manifest itself as diabetes if there is an imbalance or deficiencies in glutamine levels. Supplementing diabetic pets with glutamine may be helpful, although more research is needed in this area.

    Glutamine may reduce the gastrointestinal toxicity of some chemotherapy drugs. It can also prevent inflammation of the intestinal tract caused by radiation therapy of this area. Glutamine should be considered as a supplement for dogs undergoing half-body irridiation for the treatment of lymphosarcoma.

    Scientific Evidence
    There is little real evidence that glutamine works as a treatment for true food allergies, although it is highly recommended for pets with various bowel disorders.

    In people, there is evidence glutamine supplements might have significant nutritional benefits for those who are seriously ill. In one study, 84 critically ill hospital patients were divided into two groups. All the patients were being fed through a feeding tube. One group received a normal feeding-tube diet, whereas the other group received this diet plus supplemental glutamine. After six months, 14 of the 42 patients receiving glutamine had died, compared with 24 of the control group. The glutamine group also left both the intensive care ward and the hospital significantly sooner than the patients who did not receive glutamine. Adding glutamine to the feeding formulas of hospitalized pets might be warranted.

    Recommended dosages in pets are 250 to 3,000 mg daily. Maximum safe dosages for young children, pregnant or nursing women, or those with severe liver or kidney disease have not been determined; similar precautions are probably warranted in pets.

    Safety Issues
    Glutamine, being one of the body’s amino acids, is thought to be a safe supplement when taken at recommended dosages. Because many anti-epilepsy drugs work by blocking glutamate stimulation in the brain, high dosages of glutamine may overwhelm these drugs and pose a risk to pets with epilepsy. If your pet is taking anti-seizure medications, glutamine should only be used under veterinary supervision.

  • Hemp Health Revolution Sherrill Sellman

    There is a hemp health revolution underway that is transforming our world. The use of safe, natural and extremely effective Hemp Extract products are rescuing people from pain, stress, anxiety, epilepsy and even cancer. In fact, more than 40 health issues have improved by taking Hemp Extract.

    It is a sad fact that our pets now mirror their human's patterns of chronic illnesses. These days, our pets are also diagnosed with inflamed joints, anxiety, depression, epilepsy, and stress. Most disturbing of all, cancer is the leading cause of death in dogs.

    Hemp Extract—Insuring Our Pet's Health
    Fortunately, our furry friends have a natural option that can help them get healthy. Hemp Extract is working miracles for our pets' health.

    Instead of relying upon pharmaceutical drugs which are often toxic and expensive, Hemp Extract is proving to be an extremely effective and safe alternative. It has proven to reduce or totally alleviate many of the health issues that cause our pets much suffering.

    A Word About Hemp Extract and The Endocannabinoid System
    Nature is the source of the healing energy that allows us to align with health and vitality. Throughout time immemorial, Mother Nature has worked her healing magic through medicinal plants. Through the advancement of science, recent discoveries have unlocked the healing secret of one particular ancient medicinal plant, cannabis sativa. The hemp plant, cannabis sativa, has powerful healing, non-psychoactive constituents, known as cannabinoids or Hemp Extract. These constituents are capable of restoring balance and harmony throughout the entire body without any known side-effects.

    It is important to emphasize that when we talk about Hemp Extract, we are talking about the non-psychoactive component of the cannabis sativa plant, which is legal in all 50 states. This amazing plant is able to restore our body to inner balance, or homeostasis, through a newly discovered system called the Endocannabinoid System (ECS). The ECS deserves lots of attention and respect! This is because the ECS is considered the fundamental physiological system for creating and supporting optimal health.

    Endocannabinoids and their receptors are found throughout the body: in the brain, organs, connective tissues, glands, and immune cells. In each tissue, the cannabinoid system performs different tasks, but the goal is always the same: homeostasis, the maintenance of a stable internal environment despite fluctuations in the external environment.

    The ECS ensures that the communication between all the biological systems is working perfectly. Some of the processes that the ECS controls include: pain perception, gastrointestinal motility, memory, sleep, response to stress, anxiety, depression, bone repair, the growth of new brain cells, reduction of excessive inflammation, regulation of hormonal systems, fertility, protection from strokes and other neurodegenerative problems.

    All vertebrates contain an Endocannabinoid System. Therefore our pets—dogs, horses, cats, rabbits, mice, birds, reptiles, etc.,— all have an Endocannabinoid System!

    Since the ECS guides and protects all vital physiological processes by ensuring homeostasis, if our ECS is out-of-whack, the health of all the systems would be altered.

    Since Hemp Extract has been proven to support and optimize the functioning of the Endocannabinoid System, all of the benefits attributed to the use of Hemp Extract by humans are also the same for animals.

    Resolving Pet Health Issues

    Instead of relying on pharmaceutical medications with their long, list of side-effects (just like in humans), the use of Hemp Extract offers an effective, affordable and safe option. Hemp Extract has demonstrated success for a wide variety of animal's issues.

    Calming Anxious Animals
    Our pets are easily affected by stress and anxiety. It may be due to previous abuse or trauma. Anxiety and stress often occur from loud noises such as a thunderclap or fireworks. It can send dogs and cats into such distress that they are terrified for hours. Perhaps they have separation or abandonment anxiety when left alone. Or, it could just be the animal's nature. Whatever the cause, Hemp Extract can come to the rescue.

    Hemp Extract would be a natural solution for this reaction. When an anxiety-inducing situation is about to occur such as a thunderstorm, give them a dose of Hemp Extract. This will help them to chill and show decreased signs of nervousness and agitation. as a treatment for dog anxiety has produced amazing results. Anecdotes abound of dogs that have suffered from so much chronic anxiety that they have never integrated properly into their human family but were able to have dramatic turnarounds when treated with Hemp Extract.

    Settling Nausea
    Hemp Extract can be a huge help in overcoming nausea, vomiting or a sensitive stomach. For instance, cats that are having a hard time adjusting to a new food or who have a weak stomach can benefit from some Hemp Extract. Since cats can be notoriously fickle with their food and may avoid it if it smells different than normal, you may want to introduce the Hemp Extract implement slowly over a period of time.

    Helping with Pain and Arthritis
    Hip and joint pain is a common challenge for older dogs. This is particularly true for breeds that are especially prone to certain painful diseases such as herniated discs, hip inflammation, arthritis, and intervertebral disc disease. It goes without saying that pain will limit a dog's mobility and quality of life. Of course, cats, too, often deal with painful conditions, as they get older. In fact, most animals, large or small, will be vulnerable to pain with age.

    Racing horses often retire with severe injuries at a young age. Chronic pain can significantly shorten a horse's lifespan by forcing them to favor one leg at the expense of others. Hemp Extract can be used both topically and orally to help reduce inflammation and accelerate healing of painful joints.

    Hemp Extract is a powerful anti-inflammatory that can quickly reduce pain and improve the ability to be more active. Unlike prescribed medications, Hemp Extract is totally safe and fast-acting for reducing any kind of pain and arthritis.

    Reducing Allergic Reactions
    Another wonderful benefit of Hemp Extract is its ability to address the problem of an allergic reaction. Allergies may cause a variety of reactions, which include skin issues such as dermatitis, mange and alopecia.

    Just like in humans, pets experience an allergic reaction when their immune system views a substance (like pollen, chemicals or insect saliva) as a threat and increases the production of histamines in the body's systems. Animals show itching either by chewing or licking their skin or scratching. Commonly affected are the cheeks, belly, feet, the armpit region and ears.

    Hemp Extract will calm an overactive immune system that contributes to allergic reactions. It will help to reduce itching and skin irritations.

    A Natural Solution for Cancer
    Hemp Extract has been found to have an anti-tumor effect. It has even been shown to stop cancer cells from growing and increased tumor cell death.

    Some more progressive veterinarians are now including Hemp Extract in their protocols for their patients. Australian veterinarian, Edward Bassingthwaighte, discovered how Hemp Extract could be a critical part of his holistic veterinary practice. One of his patients was a senior Staffordshire terrier who had a 6cm mammary tumor and metastasis that disappeared in three months. The good news was that it never came back.

    Palliative Care for Pets
    Hemp Extract can contribute to a dignified final phase of life for your pet. It will help to create a calm, peaceful emotional state while reducing pain.

    Treating Seizures And Epilepsy
    It's estimated that up to five percent of dogs suffer from seizures. Most dogs with seizures are put on drugs such as phenobarbital and potassium bromide. While they may help control the seizures, they can be extremely harmful to the dog's liver and other organs. And the drugs don't work in all cases. Hemp Extract has proven to be another safe and effective alternative treatment for this condition.

    Keeping Your Pet Young and Healthy
    Just like their human companions, pets can benefit from Hemp Extract's ability to improve the endocannabinoid tone. It will support optimal health and enhance the body‘s ability to repair and regenerate at any age. Your pet deserves a natural antiaging program, too!

    Feeding CBD to pets Sherrill Sellman

    How to Give Hemp Extract to Animals

    There are many ways to administer Hemp Extract to animals. It can be added to their food, mixed in with their favorite treats or directly into their mouths. If you have a picky pet, then introduce it slowly in smaller doses with their food or with their treats. There are no known side effects from taking Hemp Extract.

    It is advised to begin slowly with a lower dose and, if there are no indications of improvement, then begin to increase the dose. Changes usually occur within 30 minutes. If there is no change after an hour, increase the dosage. Occasionally improvements will take more than one treatment. To control pain, give approximately every eight hours. For other uses, or to break unwanted behavior patterns, give once or twice a day.

    The dose depends on the size of the animal as well as the severity of the symptoms. Some animals respond with a small amount and others require a larger dose. As with humans, you will need to experiment to find the appropriate amount to successfully resolve the issue or alleviate the discomfort of your pet.

    Remember you cannot overdose and there is no toxicity associated with Hemp Extracts. Hemps Extracts can be given from a dropper bottle directly into the mouth, added to food, dropped on a treat or dropped on an animal's paw so they will lick it off. Topical Hemp Extract formulations can be rubbed into bare skin or inside the ears. You can find Hemp Extract biscuits, hemp capsules, gel caps, and topical hemp ointments.

    My recommendation is to find a product that is organically grown, processed without solvents or alcohol and uses the most effective delivery system such as a liposomal delivery system. One of my favorite organic, third party verified, liposomal Hemp Extract products is called Optihemp and is available from

    As exciting as Hemp Extract is for restoring health in the human realm, it is equally exciting to know that it can help our beloved pet companions to also regain their health. Mother Nature does it again!


    1. Cannabidiol: A new option for pets in pain?
    2. Veterinarians at Colorado State University are studying the safety and efficacy of CBD in dogs with epilepsy and arthritis.
    3. An Update on Safety and Side Effects of Cannabidiol: A Review of Clinical Data and Relevant Animal Studies
    4. 25 Health Benefits and Uses of CBD for Dogs

  • Uva Ursi
    Uva Ursi is a berry-producing, evergreen bush. Only its leaves are used for medicinal purposes.

    Uva ursi contains tannins and hydroquinones that are astringent and antibacterial. Until the development of sulfa antibiotics, its principal active component, arbutin, was frequently prescribed as a urinary antiseptic. It appears that the arbutin contained in uva ursi leaves is broken down in the intestine to another chemical, hydroquinone. This chemical is altered by the liver and then sent to the kidneys for excretion. In the bladder, it acts as an antiseptic.

    Uva ursi is therefore recommended for pets with urinary infections. Note: the urine must be alkaline for the antibacterial activity to occur; if the urine is acid, uva won¡¦t act as an antibacterial and should be combined with another antibacterial herb using uva ursi for its astringent activity. Since uva ursi is most effective in an alkaline urine, taking vitamin C or cranberry extract with it, which would acidify the urine, is not advised.

    Since the tannins in the herb can irritate the kidneys, it should only be used for no more than five to seven days at a time.

    Safety issues show hydroquinone is a liver toxin, carcinogen, and irritant. Uva ursi is not recommended for young children, pregnant or nursing women, or those with severe liver or kidney disease. Similar precautions are probably warranted in pets. Significant problems are rare among individuals using prepared uva ursi products in appropriate doses for short periods of time. Gastrointestinal distress (ranging from mild nausea, diarrhea, to vomiting) can occur, especially with prolonged use.

    If your pet is taking medications or supplements that acidify the urine, as listed above, uva ursi may not work well.

    Plantain is an herb used for its ability to lubricate and soothe internal mucous membranes. As such, it is often recommended for pets with disorders of the digestive system and genitourinary tracts.

    It is used for pets with urinary tract inflammation and infection. Plantain can be used as a substitute for slippery elm, being useful to reduce inflammation and as an antibacterial. Irritations of the digestive and respiratory tracts can be treated with plantain. And it can be used as a mild laxative.

    Plantain is safe for pets, unless the pet shows signs of being allergic to it.

    There are a number of species of goldenrod, and all seem to possess similar medicinal properties. The various species are used interchangeably.

    It is used as a supportive treatment for bladder infections, irritation of the urinary tract, and bladder/kidney stones. Goldenrod increases the flow of urine, helping to wash out bacteria and kidney stones, and may also directly soothe inflamed tissues and calm muscle spasms in the urinary tract. It isn¡¦t used as a cure in itself, but rather as a support to other more definitive treatments such as antibiotics.

    In pets, goldenrod has also been suggested for pets with respiratory disorders as it seems to decrease the amount of mucus and inflammation in the bronchial passages.

    The safety of goldenrod hasn¡¦t been fully evaluated. However, no significant reactions or side effects have been reported. Safety in young children, pregnant and nursing women, or those with severe liver or kidney disease has not been established. Similar precautions are probably warranted in your pets.

  • There are several proposed explanations about the mechanisms by which probiotics can protect your pet from harmful bowel bacteria:

    • Produce inhibitory chemicals that reduce the numbers of harmful bacteria and possibly toxin production by these harmful bacteria.
    • May block the adhesion of harmful bacteria to intestinal cells.
    • May compete for nutrients needed for growth and reproduction by harmful bacteria.
    • May degrade toxin receptors located on intestinal cells, preventing toxin absorption and damage by toxins produced by harmful intestinal bacteria.
    • May also stimulate immune function of the intestinal tract.

    Antibiotics can disturb the balance of the intestinal tract by killing friendly bacteria. When this happens, harmful bacteria and yeasts can move in, reproduce and take over. This is especially true in pets on long-term (several months) antibiotic therapy, and for pets with chronic diarrhea.

    Conversely, it appears that the regular use of probiotics can generally improve the health of the gastrointestinal system.

    The use of probiotics for treating diarrhea as well as maintaining health is often controversial. Although many holistic doctors believe they are helpful and perhaps even necessary for health, there is no daily requirement for probiotic bacteria. Probiotics are living creatures, not chemicals, so they can sustain themselves in the body unless something comes along to damage them, such as antibiotics.

    Cultured dairy products such as yogurt and kefir are good sources of acidophilus and other probiotic bacteria. However, many yogurt products do not contain any living organisms or only contain small numbers of organisms.

    Some pets will eat these foods, and others won’t. Also, if the pet has any lactose intolerance, he may not tolerate yogurt well and may experience diarrhea (although this is rare). Most doctors recommend supplements to provide the highest doses of probiotics and avoid any lactose intolerance.

    Various probiotics, while usually producing the same beneficial effects, may function differently within the intestinal tract. For example, Lactobacillus acidophilus produces lactic acid to lower the pH of the intestines and acts as an intestinal bacterial colonizer. L. casei lowers oxidation processes, and L. lactis acts on hydrogen peroxide as well as amylase and proteases.

    Dosages of Acidophilus and other probiotics are expressed not in grams or milligrams, but in billions of organisms. A typical daily dose in people should supply about three to five billion live organisms. One popular pet supplement provides 500 million viable cells to be given per 50 pounds of body weight. The suggested dosage range of probiotics for pets is approximately 20 to 500 million microorganisms.

    Some doctors recommend that when administering antibiotics, the probiotic should be given at least two hours later, several times per day, and when the antibiotic treatment has been completed, owners should double or triple the probiotic dose for seven to ten days.

    Another recommendation is that if taking several species of probiotics, Acidophilus is reported to flourish best if taken in the morning, and the Bifidus when taken at night. It is suspected this may follow the diurnal acid/alkaline tide that the body utilizes as a part of the detoxification process.

    The most important thing is, regardless of when they are taken, probiotics should be taken when using (extended) antibiotic therapy and other conditions for which theses supplements are indicated. (As treatment for bowel disorders, for example.) Because probiotics are not drugs but living organisms, the precise dosage is not so important. They should be taken regularly to reinforce the beneficial bacterial colonies in the intestinal tract, which may gradually push out harmful bacteria and yeasts growing there.

    The downside of using a living organism is that probiotics may die on the shelf. The container label should guarantee living Acidophilus, or Bulgaricus, and so on, at the time of purchase, not just at the time of manufacture.

    There is fairly good evidence that many probiotics can help with various types and causes of diarrhea. Saccharomyces boulardii, Enterococcus faecium, and Lactobacillus spp. have been shown to help prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.

    Saccharomyces has demonstrated the most promise for use in diarrhea caused by the intestinal bacterium Clostridium difficile, a common cause of bacterial overgrowth in pets and people. Some evidence suggests a particular type of probiotic, L. reuteri, can help treat diarrhea caused by viral infections in children. According to several studies conducted on the subject, it appears regular use of Acidophilus can help prevent “traveler’s diarrhea.”

    There are no known safety problems with the use of Acidophilus or other probiotics. Occasionally, some people and pets notice a temporary increase in digestive gas. If your pet is taking antibiotics, it may be beneficial to supplement with probiotics at the same time, and to continue them for a couple of weeks after the course of drug treatment has stopped. This will help restore the balance of natural bacteria in the digestive tract.

    In people, it is often suggested in addition to taking probiotics, patients take fructooligosaccharides supplements that can promote thriving colonies of helpful bacteria in the digestive tract. Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) are naturally occurring sugars found in many fruits, vegetables, and grains. These non-digestible complex carbohydrates resist digestion by salivary and intestinal digestive enzymes and enter the colon where they are fermented by bacteria such as Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides spp.

    The most beneficial effect of fructooligosaccharides is the selective stimulation of the growth of Bifidobacterium, thus significantly enhancing the composition of the colonic microflora and reducing the number of potentially pathogenic bacteria. Lactobacillus, another beneficial bacteria, was also seen to proliferate with the addition of FOS supplements. Because FOS increases the colonization of healthy bacteria in the gut, they are considered to be a prebiotic rather than a probiotic.

    Taking FOS supplements are thought to foster a healthy environment for the beneficial bacteria living in the intestinal tract. Studies using FOS at a dosage of 0.75 percent to 1.0 percent (dry matter basis) showed decreased E. coli and increased lactobacilliintestinal bacteria in cats and dogs.

    The typical daily dose of fructooligosaccharides for people is between two and eight grams. The correct dose for pets has been suggested as one supplement containing 50 mg for a 50-pound dog; research on FOS showed positive benefits when the dosage was 0.75 percent to 1.0 percent of the food when fed on a dry matter basis.

    Other Natural Treatments
    Other possible treatments for parvovirus include aloe vera juice, Boswellia, calendula, chamomile, German chamomile, marshmallow, raspberry leaf, and slippery elm. These can be used in conjunction with conventional therapies, as they are unlikely to be effective by themselves in most pets. The natural treatments are widely used with variable success but have not been thoroughly proven at this time.

    As with any condition, the most healthful natural diet will improve the pet’s overall health.

    Conventional Therapy
    Supportive care includes: antibiotics to control secondary infections, intravenous fluid therapy, force-feeding, replacement of serum protein when needed, and medications such as corticosteroids or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications to control inflammation in the intestines.

  • Natural Diets
    Dietary therapy is an important part of any treatment plan for pets with inflammatory bowel disease in addition to other conventional or complementary therapies. Avoiding foods which exacerbate the bowel inflammation is important.

    Severe inflammation of the intestinal tract can cause increased absorption of large food particles that normally do not cross the intestinal barrier possibly causing the formation of auto-antibodies, which may lead to autoimmune diseases and further intestinal damage. Bacteria and yeast may overgrow in the intestines of pets with chronic gastrointestinal disease and who are treated for extended periods of time with antibiotics; and may contribute through toxin formation to leak guy syndrome and food allergies or hypersensitivities. Many of these pets may require chronic therapy with medications and or natural supplements. Dietary therapy is quite helpful in these pets and when combined with appropriate supplements in pets with mild disease, may be the only therapy needed.

    The diet for pets with gastrointestinal disease should contain highly digestible nutrients. The typical diet is low in fat, contains hypoallergenic and easily digestible carbohydrate and protein sources. Diets requiring minimal digestion reduce digestive enzyme production protecting the intestinal tract. Excess fat aggravates diarrhea; excess dietary sugars and glutens are not easily digested in pets with gastrointestinal disease. Fiber may be added during the recovery stage if needed to allow continued healing or to prevent diarrhea in pets with chronic gastroenteritis; potatoes and vegetables serve as healthful, natural sources of fiber.

    Boiled white rice, which is highly digestible, is the recommended carbohydrate source. Alternatively, tapioca or potatoes can be used if pets cannot tolerate rice, which is rare, or if they will not eat rice-based diets. Glutenbased grains can cause persistent diarrhea due to gluten sensitivity and are not recommended.

    Proteins that are highly digestible and have a high biological value, such as cottage cheese or tofu, are recommended. Cottage cheese is easily digested and most pets do not have milk protein allergies. Meat can also be tried, although some pets may lose tolerance to meat and develop a temporary sensitivity to meat during injury to the intestinal tract cause by vomiting or diarrhea. Additionally, meat stimulates more acid to be secreted in the stomach than tofu. If meat is to be fed, low-fat beef or preferably chicken or turkey can be tried.

    Diet For Dogs With Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Dogs with gastrointestinal disease need diets with highly digestible protein that are also low in fat. Low-fat cottage cheese (1/2 to 2/3 cup) is used to provide protein (tofu with 1/8 tsp of added salt can be used if the dog refuses cottage cheese).

    Brown or white rice (2 cups) is an easily digestible carbohydrate source (boiled or baked potatoes can be tried if the dog refuses rice). Potassium can be added using supplements such as Tumil-K (available through veterinarians) or by adding 1/4-1/2 tsp of salt supplement.

    This diet would provide approximately 500 kcal with 27 grams of protein and two grams of fat.

    Include, two to three bonemeal tablets (10 grain or equivalent) or 3/4 teaspoon of bonemeal powder to supply calcium and phosphorus, with a multi-vitamin mineral supplement using the label instructions is added as the pet improves.

    Alternatively, a natural product from Standard Process (1 Calcifood Wafers or 2 Calcium Lactate with each 2 bonemeal tablets) can be used.

    When possible, natural vitamins made from raw whole foods, rather than synthetic vitamins (although both can be used in combination) are preferred, as the natural vitamins also supply plant phytochemicals, enzymes, and other nutrients not found in chemically-synthesized vitamins. Catalyn from Standard Process can be used in this recipe, at a dose of 1 Catalyn per 25 pounds; Canine Plus (VetriScience) could also be used following label dosages.

    Fresh, raw or slightly steamed vegetables can be used as a top dressing for the diet for extra nutrition and variety as the pet improves. Most vegetables provide approximately 25 kcal per 1/2 cup.

    In general, the above recipe supplies the daily nutritional and calorie needs for a 12-13 pound dog. The actual amount to feed will vary based upon the pet's weight.

    Diet For Cats

    Cats with gastrointestinal disease can do well with slight variations to this basic diet.

    1/3 to 1/2 pound ground meat (turkey, chicken, lamb, beef )

    1/2 to 1 large hard-boiled egg

    1/8 teaspoon salt substitute

    100 mg taurine

    You may add 1/4 to 1/2 cup brown or white rice. You may also prefer to use Tumil-K instead of a salt supplement.

    This diet provides approximately 275 kcal with 30 grams of protein and 16 grams fat.

    One to two bonemeal tablets (10 grain or equivalent) or 1/4 to 1/2 tsp of bonemeal powder to supply calcium and phosphorus with a multi-vitamin mineral supplement using label instructions is added as the pet improves. Alternatively, you may use 1 Calcifood Wafer or 2 Calcium Lactate tablets for each two bonemeal tablets.

    When possible use natural vitamins made from raw whole foods, rather than synthetic vitamins. Or a combination of both. Catalyn can be used as the natural vitamin, at a dose of 1 Catalyn per 10 pounds. NuCat (VetriScience) could also be used following label dosages.

    Fresh, raw or slightly steamed vegetables can be used as a top dressing. Most provide approximately 25 kcal per 1/2 cup, although most cats will not eat vegetables. In general, the above recipe supplies the daily nutritional and calorie needs for a 9.10 pound cat.

    NOTE: Before you start to feed your dog or cat a home-prepared diet, it is strongly recommended you discuss your decision with your veterinarian or a holistic vet in your area.

  • Probiotics

    Specific factors that can disrupt the normal flora of the bowel in your pets include: surgery, medications, antibiotics (especially those used long-term), shipping, birthing, weaning, illness and dietary factors. Improving the nutritional status of the intestinal tract may reduce bacterial movement across the bowel lining, intestinal permeability, and systemic endotoxemias. In addition, probiotics may supply nutrients to the pet, help in digestion, and allow for better conversion of food into nutrients.

    Some of the products are: Lactobacillus (L. acidophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. thermophilus, L. reuter), Acidophilus, Bacillus, Streptococcus, S. bulgaricus, Enterococcus, Bifidobacterium, B. bifidus, and Saccharomyces.

    Your pet’s intestinal tract has billions of bacteria and yeasts, and some of these internal inhabitants are more helpful than others. Acidophilus and related probiotic bacteria not only help the digestive tract, but also reduce the presence of less healthful organisms by competing with them for the limited space available.

    Probiotics produce inhibitory chemicals that reduce the numbers of harmful bacteria and protect your pet from harmful bowel bacteria. They may block the adhesion of harmful bacteria to intestinal cells, and compete for nutrients needed for growth and reproduction by harmful bacteria. They may degrade toxin receptors located on intestinal cells, preventing toxin absorption and damage. They may also stimulate immune function of the intestinal tract.

    Many holistic doctors believe that probiotics are helpful and perhaps even necessary for health. They are living creatures, not chemicals, so they can sustain themselves in the body unless something damages them, such as antibiotics.

    Cultured dairy products such as yogurt and kefir are good sources of acidophilus and other bacteria. However, many yogurt products do not contain any living organisms or only a few. Some pets will not eat yogurt. Also, if the pet has any lactose intolerance, they may not tolerate yogurt and experience diarrhea. Most doctors recommend supplements to provide the highest doses of probiotics and avoid any lactose intolerance.

    Dosages Of Probiotics
    Dosages are usually expressed in billions of organisms. A typical daily dose in people should supply three to five billion live organisms. One popular pet supplement provides 500 million viable cells to be given per 50 pounds of weight. The suggested range for pets is 20 to 500 million microorganisms.

    Some doctors recommend when administering antibiotics, the probiotic should be given at least two hours later, several times per day, and when the antibiotic treatment has been completed, owners should double or triple the probiotic dose for 7–10 days.

    Acidophilus is reported to flourish best if taken in the morning, and Bifidus when taken at night. It is suspected this may follow the diurnal acid/alkaline tide the body utilizes as part of the detoxification process. Regardless of when they are taken, probiotics should be taken when using antibiotic therapy, and other conditions for which these supplements are indicated, such as bowel disorders.

    Because probiotics are not drugs but living organisms, the precise dosage is not so important. They should be taken regularly to reinforce the beneficial bacterial colonies in the intestinal tract, which may gradually push out harmful bacteria and yeasts growing there.

    The downside is that probiotics may die on the shelf. The container label should guarantee living Acidophilous, etc., at the time of purchase, no

    t just at the time of manufacture.

    Scientific Evidence
    There is fairly good evidence that probiotics can help with various types and causes of diarrhea. Saccharomyces boulardii, Enterococcus faecium, and Lactobacillus spp have been shown to help prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea. With Saccharomyces demonstrating the most promise for use in diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile, a common cause of bacterial overgrowth in pets and people. L. reuteri, may help treat diarrhea caused by viral infections in children. It appears regular use of acidophilus can help prevent “traveler’s diarrhea.”

    There are no known safety problems with the use of probiotics. Occasionally, some people notice a temporary increase in digestive gas, and the same could occur in pets. If your pet is taking antibiotics, it is beneficial to supplement with probiotics at the same time, and to continue them for a couple of weeks after the course of drug treatment has stopped. This will help restore the balance of natural bacteria in the digestive tract.

    In people, it is often suggested that in addition to taking probiotics, patients should take fructo-oligosaccharides supplements that can promote thriving colonies of helpful bacteria in the digestive tracts. FOS (fructo-oligosaccharides) are naturally occurring sugars found in many fruits, vegetables and grains. These non-digestible complex carbohydrates resist digestion in salivary and intestinal digestive enzymes and enter the colon where they are fermented by bacteria such Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides spp.

    The most beneficial effect of FOS is the selective stimulation of the growth of Bifidobacterium, thus significantly enhancing the composition of the colonic microflora and reducing the number of potential pathogenic bacteria. Lactobacillus, another beneficial bacteria was also seen to proliferate with the addition of FOS supplements. Because FOS increases the colonization of healthy bacteria in the gut, they are considered to be a prebiotic rather than a probiotic.

    Taking FOS supplements is thought to foster a healthy environment for the beneficial bacteria living in the intestinal tract. Studies using FOS at a dosage of 0.75 percent to 1.0 percent showed decreased E. coli and increased lactobacilli intestinal bacteria in cats and dogs. The typical daily dose of FOS for people is between two and eight grams. The correct dose for pets has been suggests that one supplement contain 50 mg per dose for a 50-pound dog. Research on FOS showed positive benefits when the dosage was 0.75 percent to 1.0 percent of the food when fed on a dry matter basis.

    Always check with your veterinarian before beginning any treatment.

  • Alfalfa

    Common Uses: allergies, arthritis, cognitive disorder, cancer and urinary disorders.

    Alfalfa is purported to be one of the best herbal therapies for arthritis. It also possesses cancer-preventing properties by inactivating chemicals that can cause cancer. It is often fed to animals that need to gain weight.

    The vitamin K content of alfalfa makes it valuable in pets with bleeding disorders. Conversely, excess doses might interfere with blood clotting due to the coumarin (an anticoagulant) content in alfalfa.

    Alfalfa can make urine alkaline and is useful in those bladder conditions where a more alkaline urine is needed (likewise, it should not be used in pets whose medical conditions require an acid urine).

    Due to the large content of nutrients, many doctors recommend it for pets that require increased mental nutrition (older pets, especially those with cognitive disorder).

    Safety Issues
    Alfalfa is generally regarded safe. The seeds can cause blood disorders due to L-canavanine and seeds should be avoided.

    Animals sensitive to pollen may be sensitive to fresh alfalfa.

    Aminocaproic Acid (ACA)

    Common use: degenerative myelopathy. Aminocaproic acid works by inhibiting the process of fibrinolysis (the breakdown of fibrin, a protein needed for proper blood clotting) and can reverse states that are associated with excessive fibrinolysis. Degenerative myelopathy is theorized to be caused by an autoimmune response (possibly from over-vaccinating dogs) attacking the nervous system of dogs, which leads to progressive neural tissue damage. Since this is an autoimmune response, immune complexes circulate in the blood, leading to endothelial cell damage in the blood vessels of the central nervous system. This causes fibrin to be deposited around blood vessels. When the fibrin degrades, inflammatory cells are stimulated to migrate into the lesions, which leads to tissue damage. It is possible ACA may limit or stop this process.

    Aminocaproic acid is made in a 250 mg/ml oral solution. This can be mixed with chicken broth, using 2 ml of the drug and 1 ml of chicken broth. The recommended dosage is 500 mg (3 ml of the above combination) given three times a day with or without food. ACA should be stored at room temperature with the lid tightly closed.


    Common uses: liver disease, heart disease, and cancer. Arginine is an essential amino acid found in many foods. It plays a role in several bio-chemical processes in the body, including cell division, wound healing, immune functions, hormone secretion, and the removal of ammonia from the body. Arginine is also involved in the formation of nitric oxide, which relaxes blood vessels.

    Doses of 500 mg to 3000 mg per day are recommended.

    Safety Issues
    Since arginine is an amino acid, supplementation is believed to be safe. Maximum safe doses have not however, been established.


    Common uses: cancer, infections, kidney disease, and hyperthyroidism in cats.

    Astragalus is used to strengthen the immune system and acts as an anti-inflammatory. Many doctors prescribe it for pets with various infections and chronic illnesses. It can be used to help the body recover from long-term steroid therapy and for pets with kidney disease as it improves kidney circulation.

    Safety Issues
    The medicinal herb Astragalus membranaceous is safe; many other species are toxic. For hyper-immune disorders (autoimmune diseases, diabetes), and disorders with diminished immune systems with low white blood cell counts (feline leukemia and immunodeficiency diseases), it may be wise to avoid this herb, as astragalus is used for immune stimulation. It is best used early in the course of the disease to stimulate the immune system. Do not use to treat hypothyroidism.

  • Licorice is an herbal anti-inflammatory agent often used to achieve the same effects as corticosteroid medications. Pets with a variety of allergic problems may benefit from therapy using licorice.

    Therapeutic Uses
    Licorice is a fast acting anti-inflammatory agent. It is also known for its antimicrobial and immune-stimulating properties. Many herbalists regard it as "nature's cortisone" due to it glycyrrhizin content, and it is often recommended for pets with arthritis, allergies, asthma, and other inflammatory disorders. Licorice root inhibit inflammatory prostaglandins and leukotrienes (similar in activity to corticosteroids).

    Because licorice also exhibits mineralocorticoid as well as glucocorticoid activity, it has been suggested for use in Addison's disease.

    The use of licorice may allow pet owners to use decreased doses of more potent corticosteroids.

    Licorice is beneficial for the treatment of liver diseases due to its ability to prevent free radical damage and inhibit formation of free radicals. Licorice also has a protectant effect and enhances interferon and T-cell production to boost the immune system.

    Licorice reduces inflammation in pets with bronchitis and may act as an expectorant. Licorice has also shown antibacterial activity.

    In the intestinal tract, licorice helps heal ulcers and may decrease hydrochloric acid in the stomach.

    Deglycyrrhizinated licorice (DGL) is a special extract made by removing the glycyrrhizin molecule, leaving the flavonoid components. In people, DGL is used for treating ulcers of the mouth and small intestine and in inflammatory bowel disease. The anti-ulcer effects in people have been shown to be as effective as antacid medications such as Tagamet. DGL is also recommended as an herbal ulcer-preventive (similar to drugs such as misoprostol) for people taking nonsteroidal medications and corticosteroids. However, it is not clear that DGL provides all the same benefits as whole licorice for other problems.

    Scientific Evidence
    Several double-blind studies in people show benefit to patients with HIV infection and AIDS; similar results might occur in cats with leukemia or immunodeficiency infections.

    Tinctures appear to be the preferred form in pets.

    Safety Issues
    When used in large doses and for extended periods of time, licorice can produce similar cortisone-like effects as steroid medications, including high blood pressure and increased serum potassium. Do not use in pregnant animals.

    If used for more than two weeks at a time, side effects can include decreased potassium (supplementing with potassium is recommended), fluid retention, high blood pressure, and increased sodium; increased sodium excretion may be needed. These effects can be especially dangerous if you take digitalis, or if you have high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, or kidney disease. Licorice may also increase both the positive and negative effects of treatment with corticosteroids, such as prednisone. Dandelion leaf can be added to the regimen to help increase potassium and decrease sodium. In people, side effects occur commonly at levels above 400 mg per day.

    DGL is believed to be safe, although extensive safety studies have not been preformed. Side effects are rare.

    Safety for either form of licorice in young children, pregnant or nursing women, or those with severe liver or kidney disease has not been established. Similar precautions are probably warranted in pets. If the pet is taking: digitalis, long-term use of licorice can be dangerous; thiazide or loop diuretics, use of licorice might lead to excessive potassium loss; corticosteroid treatment, licorice could increase both its effects and its side effects.

    Do not use in animals with cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, or kidney disease; in pets taking digitalis medications; or in pets with diabetes. Licorice could increase blood-clotting time.

    Licorice induces cytochrome P-450 enzymes in the liver; this may alter the metabolism of other drugs, decreasing their serum levels.

    If licorice root is used for more than two weeks at a time, the diet should be supplemented with potassium and the sodium should be decreased. Caution should be used in animals with heart disease or hypertension. In large amounts, steroid over dosage (Cushing's disease) could theoretically occur. It should not be used in pregnant animals and care must be exercised in diabetic pets.

  • This month we continue discussing supplements that may help your pets with rickettsial diseases, which most commonly are caused by ticks.

    Fish Oils
    Since fish oils can easily oxidize and become rancid, some manufacturers add vitamin E to fish oil capsules and liquid products to keep the oil from spoiling, while others remove the oxygen from the capsule.

    Since processed foods have increased omega-6 fatty acids, supplementing the diets of all pets with omega-3 fatty acids seems warranted and will not harm your pet. The bottom line is there are many questions regarding the use of fatty acid therapy. More research is needed to determine the effectiveness of the fatty acids in the treatment of various medical problems, as well as the proper doses needed to achieve clinical results. Until definitive answers are obtained, you will need to work with your doctors (knowing the limitations of our current research) to determine the use of these supplements for your pet.

    Fish oil appears to be safe. The most common side effect seen in people and pets is a fish odor to the breath or the skin. Because fish oil has a mild "blood thinning" effect, it should not be combined with powerful blood-thinning mediations, such as Coumadin (warfarin) or heparin, except on a veterinarian's advice. Fish oil does not seem to cause bleeding problems when it is taken by itself at commonly recommended dosages. Also, fish oil does not appear to raise blood sugar levels in people or pets with diabetes.

    Flaxseed Oil
    Flaxseed oil is derived from the seeds of the flax plant and has been proposed as a less smelly alternative to fish oil. Flaxseed oil contains alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), an omega-3 that is ultimately converted to EPA and DHA. In fact, flaxseed oil contains higher levels of omega-3s (ALA) than fish oil. It also contains omega-6 fatty acids.

    As mentioned, many species of pets (probably including dogs and cats) and some people cannot convert ALA to these other more active noninflammatory omega-3 fatty acids. In one study in people, flaxseed oil has been suggested as a substitute for fish oil, there is no evidence it is effective when used for the same therapeutic purposes as fish oil. Unlike the case for fish oil, there is little evidence that flaxseed oil is effective for any specific therapeutic purpose.

    Therefore, supplementation with EPA and DHA is important, and this is the reason flaxseed oil is not recommended as the sole fatty acid supplement for pets. Flaxseed oil can be used to provide ALA and as a coat conditioner.

    The essential fatty acids in flax can be damaged by exposure to heat, light, and oxygen (essentially, they become rancid). For this reason, you shouldn't cook flaxseed oil. A good product should be sold in an opaque container, and the manufacturing process should keep the temperature under 100 degrees F. Some manufacturers combine the product with vitamin E because it helps prevent rancidity.

    The best use of flaxseed oil is as a general nutritional supplement to provide essential fatty acids. It appears to be a safe supplement when used as recommended.

    Certain vitamins and minerals function in the body to reduce oxidation. Oxidation is a chemical process that occurs within the body's cells. After oxidation occurs, certain by-products such as peroxides and "free radicals" accumulate. These cellular by-products are toxic to the cells and surrounding tissue. The body removes these by-products by producing additional chemicals called antioxidants that combat these oxidizing chemicals. In disease, excess oxidation can occur and the body's normal antioxidant abilities are overwhelmed. This is where supplying antioxidants can help. By giving your pet extra antioxidants, it may be possible to neutralize the harmful by-products of cellular oxidation.

    Several antioxidants can be used to supplement pets. Most commonly, vitamins A, C, E, and the minerals selenium, manganese, and zinc are prescribed. Other antioxidants, including N-acetylcysteine, Coenzyme Q10, Ginkgo biloba, bilberry, grape seed extract and pycnogenol may also be helpful.

    Dosages vary with the specific antioxidant chosen. And there is no one correct antioxidant.

    Proanthocyanidins also called pycnogenols or bioflavonoids may not be essential to life, but it's likely people and pets need them for optimal health. Most often products containing proanthocyanidins are made from grape seed or pine bark. These compounds are used for their antioxidant effects against lipid (fat) peroxidation. Proanthocyanidins also inhibit the enzyme cyclooxygenase (the same enzyme inhibited by aspirin and other non-steroidal medications). Cyclooxygenase converts arachidonic acid into chemicals, which contribute to inflammation and allergic reactions. Proanthocyanidins also decrease histamine release from cells by inhibiting several enzymes.

    Some research suggests pycnogenol seems to work by enhancing the effects of another antioxidant, vitamin C. Other research suggests the bioflavonoids can work independently of other antioxidants; as is the case with many supplements, there probably is an additive effect when multiple antioxidants are combined. People taking pycnogenol often report feeling better and having more energy; this "side effect" may possibly occur in our pets as well.

    Quercetin is a natural antioxidant bioflavonoid found in red wine, grapefruit, onions, apples, black tea, and in less amounts, leafy green vegetables and beans. Quercetin protects cells in the body from damage by free radicals and stabilizes collagen in blood vessels. Quercetin supplements are available in pill and tablet form. One problem with them, however, is they don't seem to be well absorbed by the body. A special form called quercetin chalcone appears to be better absorbed. Quercetin appears to be quite safe.

    Maximum safe dosages for young children, pregnant or nursing women, or those with serious liver or kidney disease have not been established; similar precautions are probably warranted in pets.

    In people, a typical dosage of proanthocyanidins is 200 to 400 mg three time daily. Quercetin may be better absorbed if taken on an empty stomach. The suggested dosage of proanthocyanidins complex in pets is 10 to 200 mg given daily, divided in two to three doses. The suggested dosage of bioflavonoid complex in pets is 200 to 1500 mg per day, divided into two to three doses. The actual dosage of each product will vary with the product and the pet's weight and disease condition.

    While there is no specific research showing benefit in specific rickettsial diseases, the use of antioxidants is widely recommended by holistic veterinarians to reduce oxidative damage to tissues that may occur. More research on antioxidants and other complementary therapies in the treatment of rickettsial diseases is needed.

    Other Natural Treatments For Rickettsial Diseases

    The following herbs may be helpful: alfalfa, aloe vera, astragalus, burdock, dandelion leaf, dandelion root, echinacea, garlic, ginseng, goldenseal, hawthorn, licorice, marshmallow, milk thistle, nettle, red clover, St. John's wort, turmeric, and yellow dock. Also the glycoprotein acemannan and homeopathic nosodes may be helpful.

    These can be used in conjunction with conventional therapies, as they are unlikely to be effective by themselves in most patients. The natural treatments are widely used with variable success, as many have not been proven at this time. As with any condition, the most healthful natural diet will improve the pet's overall health.

    Conventional Therapy For Rickettsial Diseases

    Tetracycline's such as doxycycline are the treatment of choice and generally will cure most cases. For pets that are critically ill, hospitalization with intravenous fluid therapy, transfusions, and force-feeding are necessary.

  • Common uses include cancer and shedding

    Selenium is a trace mineral that our bodies use to produce glutathione peroxidase, an enzyme that serves as a natural antioxidant. Selenium is also required for normal pancreatic function and lipid absorption. Glutathione peroxidase works with vitamin E to protect cell membranes from damage caused by dangerous, naturally occurring substances known as free radicals. Adequate amounts of selenium can spare vitamin E, and adequate amounts of vitamin E can reduce the selenium requirement. By ensuring that pets receive adequate amounts of both E and selenium, these important nutrients will not be deficient and will work together to help fight oxidative damage in your pet’s body.

    Selenium also has an important role in maintaining normal levels of thyroid hormones and in the metabolism of iodine, which is involved in thyroid hormone metabolism. Supplementing the diets of pets and plant enzymes can increase the selenium levels.

    Therapeutic Uses
    Many pets with excessive shedding will show decreased shedding as a result of enzyme supplementation. This may occur as a result of increased selenium levels and the impact selenium has on thyroid hormones.

    In pets selenium is often prescribed (along with other antioxidants) for pets with a variety of disorders, including epilepsy, inflammatory bowel disease, feline leukemia, feline immunodeficiency virus and cancer.

    There is some real evidence that selenium supplements can provide some protection against several types of cancer. This chemopreventive effect isn’t fully understood. It might be due to the protective effects of the antioxidant glutathione peroxidase, but other explanations have also been suggested.

    In people, selenium has been recommended for cancer prevention, AIDS, acne, cataracts, heart disease, multiple sclerosis, cervical dysplasia, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, anxiety, gout, infertility in men, psoriasis, and ulcers.

    Treatment with corticosteroids may induce selenium deficiency; supplementation may be recommended in pets receiving long-term corticosteroid therapy.

    Scientific Evidence
    A large body of evidence has found that increased intake of selenium is tied to a reduced risk of cancer. The most important blind study on selenium and cancer in people was a doubleblind intervention trial conducted by researcher at the University of Arizona Cancer Center. In this trial, researchers saw dramatic declines in the incidence of several cancers in the group taking selenium. The selenium-treated group developed almost 66 percent fewer prostate cancers, 50 percent fewer colorectal cancers, and about 40 percent fewer lung cancers as compared with the placebo group. Selenium-treated subjects also experienced a statistically significant (17 percent) decrease in overall mortality, a greater than 50 percent decrease in lung cancer deaths, and nearly a 50 percent decrease in total cancer deaths.

    Further evidence for the anticancer benefits of selenium comes from large-scale Chinese studies showing that giving selenium supplements to people who live in seleniumdeficient areas reduces the incidence of cancer. Also, observational studies have indicated that cancer deaths rise when dietary intake of selenium is low.

    The results of animal studies corroborate these results. One recent animal study examined whether two experimental organic forms of selenium would protect laboratory rats against chemically induced cancer of the tongue. Rats were given one of three treatments: 5 parts per million of selenium in their drinking water, 15 parts per million of selenium or placebo. The study was blinded so the researchers wouldn’t know until later which rats which treatment. Whereas 47 percent of rats in the placebo group developed tongue tumors, none of the rates that were given the higher selenium dosage developed tumors.

    Another study examined whether selenium supplements could stop the spread (metastasis) of cancer in mice. In this study, a modest dosage of supplemental selenium reduced metastasis by 57 percent. Even more significant was the decrease in the number of tumors that had spread to the lungs. Mice in the control group had an average of 53 tumors each, whereas mice fed supplemental selenium had an average of one lung tumor.

    Putting all this information together, it definitely appears that selenium can help reduce the risk of developing cancer.

    Wheat germ, brazil nuts, other nuts, oats, fish, eggs, liver, wholewheat bread, bran, red Swiss chard, brown rice, turnips, garlic, barley and orange juice contain selenium. There is some concern with conventional farming practices that mineral levels in the soil are inadequate. This means that the soil used for growing vegetables and fruits may be deficient in minerals such as selenium. According to information from the Organic View, 1:17 (, there is great variability in the nutrient contents of foods raised by industrial agricultural practices when compared to organically raised foods. For example, they report that in an analysis of USDA nutrient data from 1975 to 1997, the Kushi Institute of Becket, Massachusetts, found that the average calcium levels in 12 fresh vegetables declined 27 percent; iron levels dropped 37 percent; vitamin A levels 21 percent and vitamin C levels 30 percent.

    They also report that a similar analysis of British nutrient data from 1930 to 1980 published in the British Food Journal found that in 20 vegetables, the average calcium content had declined 19 percent; iron 22 percent; and potassium 14 percent. In addition, a 1999 study out of the University of Wisconsin found that three decades of the over use of nitrogen in U.S. farming has destroyed much of the soil’s fertility, causing it to age the equivalent of 5,000 years. Finally, a new U.S. Geological Survey report indicates that acid rain is depleting soil calcium levels in at least 10 eastern states, interfering with forest growth and weakening trees’ resistance to insects. Findings such as those reported here prompt many owners to search for the most wholesome produce available to include in their pets’ diets.

    Check with stores in your area to see whether they offer organically raised vegetables and animal meats. Also, ask them what they mean by the term “organically raised,” as many producers may make his claim but still use conventional agricultural practices. Find out everything you can about the farmers who supply the stores where you shop.

    Since most of us have no way of knowing what kind of soil our food was grown in, supplementing pets with selenium and other vitamins and minerals may be a good idea.

    The two general types of selenium supplements are organic and inorganic. However, these terms have nothing to do with “natural” but rather refer to the chemical form (the terms have very specific chemical meanings and have nothing to do with “organic” foods).

    The inorganic form of selenium, selenite, contains no carbon atoms and is essentially selenium atoms bound to oxygen. Some research suggests that selenite is harder for the body to absorb than organic (carbon-containing) forms of selenium, such as selenomethionine (selenium bound to methionine, an essential amino acid) or high-selenium yeast (which contains selenomethionine). However, other research on both animals and humans suggests that selenite supplements are almost as good as organic forms of selenium, and both forms are equally effective in supporting glutathione peroxidase activity. In pigs, studies have shown that selenium stores in the liver and muscle tissues were greater when organic selenium was fed. Supplying selenium in whole food supplements is the most natural way to supply selenium and is recommended for maintenance.

    The AAFCO recommendation is 0.11 mg/kg of food (dry matter basis) for dogs and 0.1 mg/kg of food for cats. However, recent research in puppies has shown that the level of dietary selenium needed to maximize glutathione and selenium levels is 0.21 ppm, which is double current AAFCO recommendations. Therefore, supplementation with a natural vitaminmineral supplement containing selenium might be indicated for all pets eating commercial diets.

    Safety Issues
    Selenium is safe when taken at the recommended dosages. However, very high selenium dosages in people are known to cause selenium toxicity. Signs of selenium toxicity include depression, nervousness, emotional instability, nausea, vomiting, and in some causes loss of hair and fingernails. Similar precautions are probably warranted in pets taking supplements, although toxicity has not been noted in pets despite concentrations greater than 4 mg of selenium/kg of food in cat foods containing fish or other seafoods. (Cats may be able to tolerate higher selenium levels as their higher dietary protein foods are protective against high selenium levels; the low availability of selenium in pet foods may also contribute to rare reports of toxicity in dogs and cats fed commercial diets.)

  • ST. JOHN’S WORT is not just for anxiety; it is effective in cancer and infections.

    The active components are found in the buds, flowers, and newest leaves. Extracts are usually standardized to the substance hypericin, which has led to the widespread misconception that hypericin is the active ingredient.

    However, there is no evidence hypericin is an antidepressant. Recent attention has focused on another ingredient named hyperforin as the potential active ingredient. It appears that standard St. John’s wort extract contains about one to six percent hyperforin.

    We don’t really know how St. John’s wort works. Early research suggested it worked like the oldest class of antidepressants, the MAO inhibitors. However, later research discredited this idea. More recent research suggests it may raise levels of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. This probably increases neurotransmitters to maintain normal mood and emotional stability. The herb may also cause binding of GABA and act as a serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Studies have used the standardized extract containing 0.14 percent hypericin.

    Evidence from animal and human studies suggest hyperforin is the ingredient that raises these neurotransmitters. However, there may be other active ingredients in St. John’s wort also at work.

    Therapeutic Uses
    The herb has been recommended for depression, separation anxiety, and certain forms of aggression in pets.

    In people, it is one of the best-documented herbal treatments with a scientific record approaching that of many prescription drugs. It is a prescription antidepressant in Germany, covered by the national healthcare system, and is prescribed more frequently for depression than any synthetic drug.

    It is also useful for its antiviral and antibacterial properties. It also has tonic effects on nerves.

    Interest in St. John’s wort is ongoing regarding antiviral activity and the potential to treat diseases, including both human and feline AIDS infections. While definitive proof is lacking, it may be worthwhile to try St. John’s wort in pets with severe viral infections (distemper, feline leukemia, immunodeficiency infections).

    Applied locally, this herb is useful to heal wounds.

    In people, the current recommendation is 300 mg three time daily of the 0.3 percent hypericin standardized solution as treatment for depression. A few products on the market are standardized to hyperforin content (usually three to five percent) instead of hypericin. These are taken at the same dosage.

    In dogs, a dose of 250 to 300 mg twice daily for large dogs has been recommended.

    Scientific Evidence
    In people, research suggests St. John’s wort is effective in about 55 percent of cases. As with other antidepressants, the full effect takes approximately four to six weeks to develop. Although St. John’s wort appears to be somewhat less powerful than standard antidepressants, it rarely causes side effect.

    Safety Issues
    Use of St. John’s wort may potentiate anesthetics and other sedatives; photosensitivity has been reported in people taking high doses. The herb should not be taken with other drugs that can inhibit MAO. In people, it is recommended to take the herb with food to decrease gastrointestinal upset. (Mild stomach discomfort, allergic reactions like a rash, lethargy, and restlessness.)

    Animal studies involving very large doses for 26 weeks have not shown any serious effects.

    Do not combine St. John’s wort with prescription antidepressants, especially drugs that increase serotonin levels, except on the specific advice of a veterinarian. Since some antidepressants, such as Prozac, linger in the blood for quite some time, caution is advised when switching from a drug to St. John’s wort. Since no one knows whether it is absolutely safe to combine the herb with medications, the safest approach is to stop administering similar medications and allow them to wash out of your pet’s system before starting St. John’s wort. Consult with your vet on how much time is necessary.

    There has also been an informal report of St. John’s wort lowering blood levels of theophylline, an asthma medication, in people. Preliminary investigation suggests the hypericin in the herb may increase the activity of a liver enzyme called cytochrome P-450. Because this enzyme can break down drugs, St. John’s wort may cause the body to speed the breakdown of various drugs, thereby decreasing their effectiveness.

    Finally, reports from the University of Colorado suggest St. John’s wort may interfere with the action of the anti-tumor drugs etoposide (VePesid), teniposide (Vumon), mitoxantrone (Novantrone), and doxorubicin (Adriamycin).

    Safety in young children, pregnant or nursing women, or those with severe liver or kidney disease has not been established. Similar precautions in pets are probably also warranted.

  • The volatile oils and curcumin are the active ingredients of this herb, which is well known as a spice in curry powder and as an herb in Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine.

    Therapeutic Uses
    Whole turmeric possesses anti-inflammatory properties. Much of this observed activity seems to be due to the presence of curcumin, which also acts as a powerful antioxidant. Turmeric has shown anticancer effects by its antioxidant, free radical scavenging effects, inhibition of nitrosamine formation, and by its ability to increase glutathione levels.

    The anti-inflammatory effects, due to lipoxygenase inhibition, have been shown to be comparable to cortisone and phenylbutazone. Topically, it acts similarly to capsaicin by inhibiting substance P to relieve pain and inflammation. Turmeric lowers blood cholesterol levels and prevents platelet clumping. Similar to glycyrrhizin and silymarin, curcumin shows protective effects on the liver. Turmeric has beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal tract including decreased gas formation and spasm. And the herb shows antimicrobial effects. The antioxidant effects are comparable to BHA, BHT, and vitamins C and E.

    Unlike anti-inflammatory drugs, curcumin does not appear to cause stomach ulcers and might even help prevent them. While curcumin has been recommended for people with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, more evidence will be necessary before curcumin can be described as an effective treatment for arthritis.

    In animal models, the curcumin was found to have anti-inflammatory effects in arthritic pets comparable to the nonsteroidal medication phenylbutazone.

    Turmeric is often used for pets with a number of conditions, including arthritis, asthma, cancer inflammatory diseases, infections and can be used as a liver tonic. In people, the absorption of curcumin is reportedly increased when compounded with bromelain, although there is no evidence to support this. However, since bromelain possesses some anti-inflammatory powers of its own, the combination may be synergistic.

    Safety Issues
    Do not use in pets with bile duct obstruction, gallbladder stones, or gastrointestinal upset. Safety in young children, pregnant or nursing women, or those with severe liver or kidney disease has not been established; similar precautions are probably warranted in pets.

  • (Niacin, niacinamide, nicotinamide, inositol hexaniacinate)

    Vitamin B3 is required for proper function of more than 50 enzymes. Without it, your body would not be able to release energy or make fats from carbohydrates. Vitamin B3 is also used to make sex hormones and other important chemical signal molecules.

    Vitamin B3 is needed for healthy skin and proper circulation of the blood throughout the body. As with other B vitamins, it also aids in proper functioning of the nervous system and in the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. The secretion of bile and stomach acids requires niacin. Niacin lowers cholesterol and helps with the synthesis of hormones, including estrogen and testosterone. It is often used to enhance memory.

    Similar to riboflavin, vitamin B3 is used in energy production by the cell. It is an integral part of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. These enzymes are also used to transfer hydrogen ions (which are supplied by sugars and fatty acids in the diet)to the cytochrome and hydrogen ion transfer systems to supply energy to the body.

    Tryptophan metabolism is intrinsically linked to niacin (niacin may also be synthesized from dietary tryptophan if the diet is low in niacin and adequate tryptophan is available). In cats, however, one of the intermediate compounds formed during tryptophan metabolism to niacin is quickly utilized by another pathway; therefore, cats cannot convert tryptophan to niacin. Thus cats, unlike dogs, have a strict dietary requirement for niacin.

    Vitamin B3 comes in two principal forms niacin (nicotinic acid) and niacinamide (nicotinamide). When taken in low doses for nutritional purposes, they are essentially identical. However, each has its own particular effects when taken in high doses. High-dose niacin is principally used for lowering cholesterol. High-dose niacinamide may be helpful in presenting type I (childhood-onset) diabetes and reducing symptoms of osteoarthritis in people. However, these are concerns regarding liver inflammation when any form of niacin is taken at high dosages.

    Scientific Evidence
    There is no question that niacin (but not niacinamide) can significantly lower total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol and raise HDL cholesterol in people. However, unpleasant flushing reaction and the risk of liver inflammation have kept niacin from being widely used. According to numerous studies, niacin can lower cholesterol and LDL (“bad”) cholesterol by 15 to 25 percent, lower triglycerides by two to 50 percent, and raise HDL (“good”) cholesterol by 15 to 25 percent. Furthermore, longterm use of niacin has been shown to significantly reduce death rates from cardiovascular disease.

    Intriguing evidence suggests that regular use of niacinamide (but not niacin) may help prevent diabetes in children at special risk of developing it. Risk can be determined by measuring the ratio of antibodies to islet cells (ICA antibody test). Niacinamide may improve blood sugar control in both children and adults who already have diabetes.

    Exciting evidence from a huge study conducted in New Zealand suggests that niacinamide can prevent high-risk children from developing diabetes. In this study more than 20,000 children were screened for diabetes risk by measuring ICA antibodies. It turned out that 185 of these children had detectable levels. About 170 of these children were then given niacinamide for seven years (not all parents agreed to give their children niacinamide or stay in the study for that long). About 10,000 other children were not screened, but were followed to see whether they developed diabetes.

    The results were impressive. In the group in which children were screened and given niacinamide if they were positive for ICA antibodies, the incidence of diabetes was reduced by as much as 60 percent. These findings suggest that niacinamide is a very effective treatment for preventing diabetes. (It also shows that tests for ICA antibodies can very accurately identify children at risk for diabetes.)

    At present, an enormous-scale, long-term trial called European Nicotinamide Diabetes Intervention Trial is being conducted to definitely determine whether regular use of niacinamide can prevent diabetes.

    If a child has just developed diabetes, niacinamide may prolong what is called the honeymoon period. This is in the interval in which the pancreas can still make insulin, and insulin needs are low. A recent study suggests that niacinamide may also improve blood sugar control in type II (adult-onset) diabetes, but it did not use a double-bind design.

    According to several good-size, double-bind studies involving a total of over 500 individuals, a special form of niacin, inositol hexaniacinate, may be able to improve walking distance in intermittent claudication (severe leg cramps caused by hardening of the arteries). For example, in one study, 120 individuals were given either placebo or 2 g of inositol hexaniacinate daily. Over a period of three months, walking distance improved significantly in the treated group. (Other treatments that may help intermittent claudication include carnitine and ginko.)

    Preliminary evidence (one small double-bind study) suggests that insoitol hexaniacinate niacinamide may be able to reduce symptoms of Raynaud’s phenomenon as well. This condition includes a response to cold, usually most severely in the hands. The dosage used in he study was 4 g daily, again a dosage high enough for liver inflammation to be a real possibility.

    Preliminary evidence suggests that niacinamide may be able to reduce symptoms of osteoarthritis. There is some evidence that niacinamide may provide some benefits for those with osteoarthritis. In a double-bind study, 72 individuals with arthritis were given either 3,000 mg daily of niacinamide (in five equal doses) or placebo for 12 weeks. The results showed that treated patients experienced a 20 percent improvement in symptoms, whereas those given placebo worsened by 10 percent. However, at this dose, liver inflammation is a concern that must be taken seriously.

    Very weak evidence suggests one of the several forms of niacin may be helpful in bursitis, cataracts, and pregnancy.

    Therapeutic Uses
    Niacin was discovered to be the specific chemical that cured black tongue (pellagra) in dogs fed niacin-deficient diets. Niacin deficiency (pellagra) causes dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia and death.

    Niacinamide has been recommended for the treatment of several disorders in pets, including discoid lupus erythematosus and pemphigus erythematosus in dogs. When combined with tetracycline, niacinamide (at a dosage of 500 mg of tetracycline and 500 mg of nacinamide per dog given every eight hours for dogs weighing more than 10 kg) has been found to show an excellent response in 25 to 65 percent of cases. While no studies support the use of niacinamide for dogs with atopic dermatitis, since niacinamide works by inhibiting antigen-IgE-induced histamine release, it may be an option for atopic dogs.

    Good food sources of niacin are seeds, yeast, bran, peanuts (especially with skins), wild rice, brown rice, whole wheat, barley, almonds, liver, brewer’s yeast, broccoli, carrots, cheese, eggs, fish, milk, pork, potatoes, and peas. Tryptophan is found in protein foods (meat, poultry, dairy products, and fish). Turkey and milk are particularly excellent sources of tryptophan. Other sources include green alfalfa and the herbs catnip, cayenne, chamomile, chickweed, licorice, mullein, nettle, peppermint, raspberry leaf, red clover, rose hips, slippery elm, and yellow dock.

    The AAFCO recommends 11.4 mg/kg of niacin daily for dogs and 60 mg/kg of niacin for cats.

    Safety Issues
    In people, when taken at a dosage of more than 100 mg daily, niacin frequently causes annoying skin flushing, especially in the face. This reaction may be accompanied by stomach distress, itching and headache. In studies, as many as 43 percent of individuals taking niacin quit because of the unpleasant side effects.

    A more dangerous effect is liver inflammation. Although most commonly seen with slow-release niacin, it can occur with any type of niacin,when taken at a daily dose of more than 500 mg. Regular blood tests to evaluate liver function are therefore mandatory when using high-dose (or niacinamide or inositol hexaniacinate). This side effect almost always goes away when niacin is stopped. People with liver disease, ulcers (presently or in the past), gout, or diabetes should not take high-dose niacin except on medical advice.

    Maximum safe dosages for young children and pregnant or nursing women have not been established. Pets are not routinely treated with niacin. However, similar precautions are probably warranted if your pet is prescribed niacin.

    As in the case in human medicine, if your pet is taking cholestrol-lowering drugs in the statin family, he should probably not take additional niacin. Pets taking older choslestrol-lowering drugs such as cholestyramine or colestipol should take niacin at a different time of day to avoid absorption problems based on the recommendation in human medicine. Pets taking the antituberculosis drug isoniazid may need extra niacin. However, because niacin can interfere with INH, doctor supervision is necessary.

    Shawn Messonnier, DVM
    Dr. Messonnier, a 1987 graduate of Texas A& M College
    of Veterinary Medicine, opened Paws & Claws Animal
    Hospital in 1991. His special interests include exotic pets,
    dermatology, and animal behavior.
    Dr. Messonnier is a well-known speaker and author. Visit:

  • Common Uses
    Supplement for arthritis, allergy, epilepsy, cancer prevention, immune support

    Vitamin C is a water soluble vitamin that is required by people and some animals. Humans and certain animals (such as guinea pigs and monkeys) lack the enzyme L-gulonolactone oxidase needed for the formation of vitamin C. Dogs and cats possess this enzyme and can therefore synthesize vitamin C. As such, dogs and cats do not have a specific dietary requirement for this vitamin. Many doctors, however will supplement with vitamin C during times of stress and illness (as larger amounts of vitamin C may be required during these times.)

    Ascorbic acid is a term often used interchangeably with vitamin C. While ascorbic acid (as well as ascorbate and other terms) is often used synonymously with vitamin C, this is not technically correct. Ascorbic acid (discovered in 1928, when Albert Szent-Gyorgyi isolated the active ingredient in fruits and called the “anti-scorbutic principle”) is the antioxidant fraction of vitamin C. Simply supplementing ascorbic acid is not the same as supplying vitamin C. Holistic veterinarians usually prefer natural vitamin C supplementation when indicated, although studies using the complementary therapy called orthomolecular medicine have shown benefit to using ascorbate in helping pets with a variety of medical disorders. A novel product called Ester-C has also shown benefit in pets.

    Vitamin C functions as an antioxidant and free radical scavenger, is used for normal repair of tissue, is required for adrenal gland function, is used for collagen synthesis, and is needed for maintaining healthy gums. It is needed for metabolism of several B vitamins, including folic acid and the amino acids tyrosine and phenylalanine. Vitamin C is needed for norepinephrine (a nerve transmitter) synthesis as well as for cholesterol synthesis.

    Therapeutic Uses
    This vitamin assists in providing protection against cancer and enhances immunity. Hemoglobin synthesis requires vitamin C; deficiency can cause anemia.

    Because vitamin C is so vital for the synthesis of the connective tissue collagen, which is an integral part of cartilage, it is often prescribed for pets with arthritis (and various forms of vitamin C or ascorbate acid are often included in various supplements for pets with arthritis.)

    To have normal collagen metabolism, vitamin C is required for the conversion of proline to hydroxyproline and for the conversion of lysine to hydroxylysine. These reactions take place after proline and lysine are incorporated into the connective tissue.

    Vitamin C also protects against unnecessary blood clotting and bruising and aids in healing of wounds; vitamin C deficiency causes slow scar formation.

    Ascorbic acid is a precursor of oxalate. It has been suggested that additional ascorbic acid should not be feed to pets prone to oxalate bladder stones. However, at least in people, there is no evidence that high levels of ascorbic acid actually increase oxalate production.

    Vitamin C appears to work synergistically as an antioxidant with vitamin E. Vitamin C appears to attack free radicals, those chemicals produced as a by-product of cell metabolism, in cellular fluids, whereas vitamin E attacks the free radicals in the cell membranes.

    In people, vitamin C has been recommended for numerous conditions, including colds, cataracts, macular degeneration, cancer prevention and treatment, heart disease prevention, hypertension, asthma, low sperm count, bedsores, Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, hepatitis, herpes, insomnia, osteoarthritis, Parkinson’s disease periodontal disease, preeclampsia, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcers, allergies, general antioxidant, bladder infections, menopausal symptoms, migraine headaches and nausea.

    Ascorbic acid scavenges nitrates, which can reduce nitrosamine- induced cancers.

    There is some evidence that supports using vitamin C supplement to help colds, slightly improve asthma and reduce the risk of macular degeneration and cataracts.

    In people, vitamin C deficiency cause scurvy with the clinical signs of swollen, painful joints, abnormal wound healing, bleeding gums, and pinpoint hemorrhages under the skin. Vitamin C deficiency, while common in non-human primates (monkeys) and guinea pigs, does not occur in dogs and cats.

    Scientific Evidence
    Regular use of vitamin C may reduce the risk of cataracts, probably by fighting free radicals that damage the lens of the eye. In an observational study or 50,800 nurses followed for 8 years, it was found that people who used vitamin C supplements for more than 10 years had a 45 percent lower rate of cataract development. However, unlike the case of other supplements, diets high in vitamin C were not found to be protective; only supplemental vitamin C made a difference. This is the opposite of what was found with vitamin C in the prevention of other disease, such as cancer.

    It had been suggested that vitamin C may be particularly useful against cataracts in people with diabetes, because of its influence on sorbitol, a sugar-like substance that tends to accumulate in the cells of diabetics. Excess sorbitol is believed to play a role in the development of diabetes-related cataracts, and vitamin C appears to help reduce sorbitol buildup.

    Vitamin C levels in the blood have been found to be low in people with diabetes. When vitamin C levels are adequate, the regulation of insulin improved, as vitamin C has been shown to enhance insulin action glucose and lipid metabolism. Therefore, vitamin C supplementation may benefit both insulin-dependent and non-insulin diabetics. It is unknown if this is the case in diabetic pets, although vitamin C has been recommended for pets with diabetes.

    There is also good evidence for using ascorbate for people with gingivitis. Evidence for its effectiveness in treating their conditions is highly preliminary at best.

    In people, aspirin, other inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, and tetracycline-family antibiotics can lower body levels of vitamin C. The same may be true of pets, vitamin C given to pets treated with the medications mentioned above is not harmful and might be helpful.

    Pets are often treated with additional vitamin C or ascorbate compounds for various illnesses. Both intravenous and oral supplementation are used, although controlled studies are lacking showing the effectiveness of giving vitamin C or ascorbate compounds for most conditions.

    Citrus fruits, green vegetables, berries, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, collard greens, spinach, chard, turnip greens, red chili peppers, sweet potatoes, kale, parsley, watercress, cauliflower, cabbage and strawberries are good sources of vitamin C, as are green foods, alfalfa, herbs, rose hips dandelion, fennel and slippery elm.

    Safety Issues
    In pets and in people, high-doses of vitamin C may cause diarrhea. There have been warnings that long-term vitamin C treatment can cause kidney stones, but in a large-scale study the people who took the most vitamin C (over 1,500 mg daily) actually had a lower risk of kidney stones than those taking the least amounts. Nonetheless, people with a history of kidney stones and those with kidney failure who have a defect in vitamin C or oxalate metabolism should probably restrict vitamin C intake to approximately 200 mg daily. While there is no evidence that stone formation increases people or pets supplemented use with vitamin C, talk with your veterinarian before adding extra vitamin C if your pet is prone to urinary stones.

    Vitamin C may also reduce the blood-thinning effects of Coumadin (warfarin) and heparin.

    Vitamin C may increase the blood levels of some drugs, such as aspirin and other salicylates.

    Always consult with your veterinarian before adding vitamins and supplements to your pet’s diet.

  • Vitamin K, a fat-soluble vitamin, is needed for the proper clotting of blood (it plays a major role in the carboxylation of clotting proteins II, VI, IX, and X and proteins C and S). It may also help prevent osteoporosis, as it is needed for the synthesis of the bone protein (osteocalcin) involved in calcium crystallization (via the incorporation of calcium phosphates in growing bone). Vitamin K exists as vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) and K2 (menaquinone), the natural forms found in food, and as vitamin K3, the synthetic form called menadione. Both vitamins K1 and K2 are converted to dihydrovitamin K upon digestion.

    Intestinal (colonic) bacteria manufacture a large amount of the vitamin K (K2) present in tissues throughout the body; therefore, supplementation with dietary vitamin K is usually not necessary in people and pets.

    Deficiency of vitamin K causes excess internal or external bleeding due to a failure of the body to properly clot blood. In dogs and cats, this most commonly occurs as a result of rodent poisons containing warfarin or warfarin-type chemicals. Diseases causing maldigestion and malabsorption as well as destruction of bacteria in the colon by antibiotic therapy can also cause vitamin K deficiency. Supplementation with probiotic bacteria can help restore vitamin K production.

    Severe liver deficiency may decrease the activation of vitamin K in the liver, resulting in defective carboxylation of vitamin- K dependent coagulation cofactors, resulting in bleeding disorders due to faulty blood clotting.

    Vitamin K also aids in converting glucose into glycogen for energy storage in the liver. Healthy liver function is also promoted by vitamin K.

    Therapeutic Uses For Vitamin K
    Protection against cancers that involve the inner lining of body organs is attributed to vitamin K; vitamin K may also promote longevity.

    While vitamin K has been recommended for use in people with osteoporosis, so far the evidence that it actually works is somewhat slim. There are no well-established therapeutic uses of vitamin K, other than its conventional use as an antidote for blood-thinning medications.

    Scientific Evidence
    A study of people suggests that an intake of vitamin K higher than the RDA, in the range of 110 mcg daily, might be helpful for preventing osteoporosis. Research has found that people with osteoporosis have much lower blood levels of vitamin K than other people. For example, in a study of 71 postmenopausal women, participants with reduced bone mineral density showed lower serum vitamin K1 levels than those with normal bone density. Similar results have been seen in other studies. A recent report from 12,700 participants in the Nurses’ Health Study found higher dietary intake of vitamin K is associated with a significantly reduced risk of hip fracture. Interestingly, the most common source of vitamin K used by individuals in the study was iceberg lettuce, followed by broccoli, spinach, romaine lettuce, Brussels sprouts, and dark greens. Women who ate lettuce each day had only 55 percent the risk of hip fracture of those who ate it only weekly. However, among women taking estrogen, no benefit was seen, probably because estrogen is so much more powerful. Research also suggests supplemental vitamin K can reduce the amount of calcium lost in the urine. This is indirect evidence of a beneficial effect on bone. Taken together, these findings suggest vitamin K supplements might help prevent osteoporosis.

    Vitamin K Sources
    Vitamin K (in the form of K1) is found in dark green leafy vegetables. Kale, green tea, and turnip greens are the best food sources, providing about ten times the daily human adult requirement in a single serving. Spinach, broccoli, lettuce, and cabbage are very rich sources as well. Vitamin K is also found in such common foods as oats, green peas, whole wheat, green beans, Brussels sprouts, egg yolks, liver, oatmeal, safflower oil, soybeans, wheat, watercress, and asparagus. Green foods, alfalfa, and the herbs green tea, nettle and shepherd’s purse are also sources.

    Vitamin K Dosages
    There is no AAFCO recommended level of vitamin K in dog foods. However, there have been reports of vitamin K deficiency in cats fed several commercial foods containing high levels of salmon or tuna. The AAFCO recommends supplementation for any cat eating a diet containing greater than 25 percent fish (0.1 ppm vitamin K recommended and is usually included in the processed diets).

    Vitamin K Safety Issues
    Vitamin K is probably quite safe at the recommended therapeutic dosages, since those quantities are easily obtained from food.

    Certain drugs can interfere with the action or absorption of vitamin K, including the antituberculosis drug isoniazid (INH), phenytoin (for seizures), cholestyramine (for high cholesterol), and even high doses of vitamin E. Additional vitamin K may be needed in these situations.

    The blood-thinning drugs Coumadin (warfarin) and dicumarol work by antagonizing the effects of vitamin K. Conversely, vitamin K supplements, or intake of foods containing high levels of vitamin K, blocks the action of these medications, and is used as an antidote.

    Excess vitamin K (vitamin K toxicity) is unlikely to be a problem in pets. However, menadione (synthetic vitamin K3) toxicity can occur and cause fatal anemia and jaundice.

  • Zinc is an important mineral found in every cell in the body and required by more than 300 enzymes in the body. In people, mild zinc deficiency seems to be fairly common. Severe zinc deficiency can cause a major loss of immune function, and mild deficiency might impair immunity slightly.

    In people, zinc supplements may have benefits, including directly killing cold viruses in the throat, helping stomach ulcers heal, and relieving symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. Zinc is sometimes recommended in people for the following conditions as well: macular degeneration, benign prostatic hyperplasia, Alzheimer’s disease, wound healing, inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease), osteoporosis, diabetes, AIDS, bladder infection, cataracts, and periodontal disease. With the exception of shortterm use for people with colds, these other uses involve longterm use of high dosages of zinc, which can cause toxic effects.

    Zinc is necessary for normal growth, formation of the epidermis, metabolism of protein, metabolism of carbohydrates, and normal immune function. Zinc-deficient diets fed to puppies produce fewer T lymphocytes (an important constituent of the immune system) in the lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus gland.

    There are two specific, rarely seen zinc-responsive skin disorders in dogs. The first is seen in dogs (usually puppies) fed a zinc-deficient diet (diets high in plant material such as vegetable fiber and soybean meal). Plant materials contain calcium phytate, which binds zinc, interfering with intestinal absorption and leading to a zinc deficiency. The diets most likely to cause zinc deficiency are those generic (least expensive) diets that use the less expensive plant ingredients rather than meat ingredients as protein sources.

    The second syndrome is a genetic defect that causes decreased absorption of zinc from the intestines in Siberian Huskies, Malamutes, and Bull Terriers that carry the gene for lethal acrodermatitis.

    Clinical signs include a crusting dermatitis, mainly around the eyes, nostrils, and mouth.

    Therapeutic Issues
    Zinc administration (10 to 15 mg/kg IV weekly for four to six weeks, zinc sulfate at 10 mg/kg daily, or zinc methionine at 4 mg/kg/day) is curative of acrodermatitis. Higher doses may be needed in some pets, and those pets with the genetic form may only respond to the IV administration of zinc (the oral form was found ineffective in some but not all studies). Changing generic diets to better diets (preferably homemade) is also important.

    Oral administration of zinc was not found to be effective in treating dogs with atopic dermatitis.

    In dogs, oral administration of zinc acetate has been helpful for treating copper hepatotoxicosis. Zinc induces increased concentrations of metallothionein in intestinal cells (preventing copper absorption) and in liver cells (which binds to copper in the damaged liver cells). Zinc acetate is administered at 100 mg per dog twice daily for three to six months; the zinc acetate dosage is reduced to 50 mg twice daily. Treatment may need to continue for the life of the pet. Zinc acetate is best administered without food (give at least one hour before meals) to decrease zinc binding by constituents (such as phytates) in the food.

    Zinc is found in high concentrations in the pancreatic islet cells and performs a distinct role in the synthesis, secretion, and storage of insulin. Zinc deficiency has been shown to increase the risk of diabetes while zinc supplementation seems to have positive effects on glucose balance.

    Zinc is also a precursor to the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD), a powerful antioxidant that destroys the highly reactive form of oxygen known as superoxide. In order to maintain adequate levels of SOD, it is critical to consume adequate amounts of selenium and zinc.

    Deficiencies of zinc can lead to decreased SOD production, increasing the risk of lipid peroxidation. Diabetics have been found to have elevated levels of peroxidation end-products. Supplementing with 30 mg of zinc daily has been shown to increase plasma concentrations, which may have a positive effect on SOD activity.

    Manganese and high intake of copper and iron may impair zinc absorption. Neither calcium nor folic acid appears to significantly affect zinc absorption. Diuretics can cause excessive loss of zinc in the urine.

    Zinc can be taken as a nutritional supplement, in one of many forms. Zinc citrate, zinc acetate, or zinc picolinate may be the best absorbed, although zinc sulfate is less expensive. The most holistic approach is to feed your pet a whole food supplement containing zinc.

    Safety Issues
    In people, zinc seldom causes any immediate side effects other than occasional stomach upset, usually when it’s taken on an empty stomach. Some forms do have an unpleasant metallic taste. However, long-term use of zinc at dosages of 10 mg or more daily can cause a number of toxic effects, including severe copper deficiency, impaired immunity, heart problems, and anemia.

    Use of zinc can interfere with absorption of manganese, soy, Coumadin (warfarin), verapamil, penicillamine, and antibiotics in the tetracycline or quinolone (Cipro, Floxin, enrofloxcin) family.